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One of the cornerstones of general relativity is the equivalence principle. However, the validity of the equivalence principle has only been established on solar system scales for standard matter fields; this result cannot be assumed to hold for the non-standard matter fields that dominate the gravitational dynamics on cosmological scales. Here we show how the equivalence principle may be tested on cosmological scales for non-standard matter fields using the odd multipoles of the galaxy cross-power spectrum and bispectrum. This test makes use of the imprint on the galaxy cross-power spectrum and bispectrum by the parity-violating general relativistic deformations of the past-light cone, and assumes that galaxies can be treated as test particles that are made of baryons and cold dark matter. This assumption leads to a non-zero galaxy-baryon relative velocity if the equivalence principle does not hold between baryons and dark matter. We show that the relative velocity can be constrained to be less than 28% of the galaxy velocity using the cross-power spectrum of the HI intensity mapping/Hα galaxy survey and the bispectrum of the Hα galaxy survey.