System Dynamics has the potential to study the aspects of complex systems including its likely effect of modifications to structural and dynamic system properties that cannot be achieved with traditional approaches. This paper presents a review of literature addressing safety issues using system dynamics across safety–critical domains. Sixty-three studies were included and classified based on a customised human factors safety taxonomy framework. The thematic analysis of the literature resulted in five themes: external factors, organisational influences, unsafe supervisions, preconditions for unsafe acts and unsafe acts. The findings suggest that using system dynamics can be a potential tool in improving safety. This can be achieved through improved decision-making by basing it on system analysis, analysing past behavioural events in a modelling structure to plan effective safety policies, as well as looking at a holistic approach when analysing accidents.