We present the Emission Line Galaxy (ELG) sample of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV Data Release 16 (DR16). After describing the observations and redshift measurement for the 269,243 observed ELG spectra over 1170 deg2, we present the large-scale structure catalogues, which are used for the cosmological analysis. These catalogues contain 173,736 reliable spectroscopic redshifts between 0.6 and 1.1, along with the associated random catalogues quantifying the extent of observations, and the appropriate weights to correct for non-cosmological fluctuations. We perform a spherically averaged baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurement in configuration space, with density field reconstruction: the data 2-point correlation function shows a feature consistent with that of the BAO, but the BAO model is only weakly preferred over a model without BAO (ΔΧ2 < 1). Fitting a model constrained to have a BAO feature provides a 3.2-percent measurement of the spherically averaged BAO distance DV (zeff) / rdrag = 18.23 ± 0.58 at the effective redshift zeff = 0.845.
- cosmology: observations
- cosmology: dark energy
- cosmology: distance scale
- cosmology: large-scale structure of Universe
- galaxies: distances and redshifts