The effect of cryogenic machining of S2 glass fibre composite on the hole form and dimensional tolerances

Ugar Koklu, Sezer Morkavuk, Carol Featherson, Malik Haddad, David Sanders, Muhammad Aamir, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin

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S2 glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites are widely used in aeronautical applications owing to their excellent strength to weight ratio. Drilling glass fibres can be cumbersome due to their abrasive nature and poor thermal conductivity. Moreover, the use of conventional coolants is not desirable due to contamination and additional costs for cleaning the machine part. An alternative is to use environmentally friendly coolants such as liquid nitrogen (LN2) which have been previously employed in machining metals and composites. The current study investigates the effect of drilling S2 glass fibre composite in a bath of LN2. The study aims to evaluate the effect of spindle speed, feed rate and the presence of cryogenic cooling on the form and dimensional tolerances of the hole (hole size, circularity, cylindricity and perpendicularity). Design of experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to determine the contribution of the input parameters on the analysed hole quality metrics. Results indicated that drilling S2 glass fibre in a cryogenic bath increased hole size significantly beyond the nominal hole diameter. The hole circularity and cylindricity were reduced compared to holes drilled under dry condition under all cutting parameters due to enhanced thermal stability during the drilling process. The current study aims to provide the scientific and industrial communities with the necessary knowledge on whether cryogenic bath cooling strategy provides better hole quality output compared to dry drilling and other cryogenic cooling strategies which were previously reported in the open literature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2021


  • hole size
  • circularity
  • perpendicularity
  • cylindricity
  • S2 glass fibre


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