The effectiveness of a web-based application for a balanced diet and healthy weight among Indonesian pregnant women: randomized controlled trial

Mira Trisyani Koeryaman*, Saseendran Pallikadavath, Isobel Helen Ryder, Ngianga Kandala

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Background: Pregnant women have self-declared that they have difficulties in estimating nutrient intakes. The Nutrition Information System for Indonesian Pregnant Women (SISFORNUTRIMIL) application was created as a dietary assessment and calorie-counting tool to guide pregnant women to eat the right portion sizes for each meal. 

Objective: The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the SISFORNUTRIMIL application in helping users achieve a balanced diet and healthy maternal weight gain in comparison to nonusers in Indonesia. 

Methods: First-pregnancy women in the second trimester aged 19-30 years (N=112) participated in the randomized controlled trial. Recruited women who were eligible and consented to participate in the study were allocated into the intervention group, or application user (n=56), and the control group, or application nonuser (n=56). The intervention recommended that pregnant women consume at least 5 food groups and calculate a recommended average portion size for 12 weeks. Both groups were self-monitored and recorded their intake in food records for 3 days every week. The dietary diversity consumed, macro- and micronutrient intake, and maternal weight gain were assessed pre- and postintervention. Data were collected three times during the intervention. Diversity food consumption was measured by the Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women of reproductive age. Furthermore, the Indonesian recommended dietary allowances were used to refer to and validate appropriate energy and nutrient amounts. Independent sample t test was used to compare differences between the intervention and control groups. 

Results: The mean dietary diversity score for the application user group (7.79, SD 1.20) was significantly greater than for the application nonuser group (7.02, SD 1.39; adjusted mean difference 0.77, 95% CI 0.28-1.25; d=0.28; P=.005). Macro- and micronutrient intake was significantly more in accordance with the dietary recommendations for the user group compared to the control group, including an energy daily intake of 156.88 kcal (95% CI 114.52-199.23; d=-1.39; P=.002), 102.43 g of carbohydrates (95% CI -125.2 to -79.60; d=-1.68; P=.02), 14.33 g of protein (95% CI 11.40-17.25; d=1.86; P<.001), and 10.96 g of fat (95% CI -13.71 to -8.20; d=-1.49; P<.001). Furthermore, there was a significantly higher intake of daily vitamins and minerals in the intervention group than in the control group. Other results showed that maternal weight gain in the intervention group was in accordance with the parameters of healthy weight gain. 

Conclusions: Recording food intake using the application was significantly effective in improving the dietary diversity consumed, improving adequate energy and nutrient intake, and producing healthy maternal weight during pregnancy.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN42690828;

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere38378
Number of pages15
JournalJMIR Formative Research
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 2023


  • application
  • calorie
  • consumption
  • control group
  • diet
  • dietary intake
  • food
  • healthy diet
  • Indonesia
  • intervention
  • maternal
  • minerals
  • mobile app
  • nutrition
  • pregnancy
  • pregnant women
  • randomized controlled trial
  • tool
  • treatment
  • vitamins
  • web-based application
  • weight
  • weight gain

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