Environmental laws in Africa have their roots in the political economy of colonialism. This article examines the evolution of wildlife crime and conservation institutional framework in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. SADC countries have ratified multilateral environmental agreements and embraced Transboundary Conservation Areas. However, SADC states are hesitant to ratify treaties that make inroads into their sovereignty. Classification of poaching as a transnational organised crime is essential in effectively combating this crime. Policy recommendation on the effective use of wildlife instruments is made. It is recommended that the SADC Tribunal be resuscitated with jurisdiction over transnational environmental issues.