Internationally, drowning is a leading cause of accidental death that features in many legal cases. In these cases, possible mitigations and the 'pain and suffering' in terms of the duration and subjective experience of drowning are often pivotal in determining levels of compensation and outcome. As a result, there is a requirement to understand the stages of the drowning process, and the duration and physiological and subjective responses associated with each stage. In this short review we focus on these issues.
- cold water