The experience of drowning

Michael Tipton, Hugh Montgomery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Downloads (Pure)


Internationally, drowning is a leading cause of accidental death that features in many legal cases. In these cases, possible mitigations and the 'pain and suffering' in terms of the duration and subjective experience of drowning are often pivotal in determining levels of compensation and outcome. As a result, there is a requirement to understand the stages of the drowning process, and the duration and physiological and subjective responses associated with each stage. In this short review we focus on these issues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-26
Number of pages10
JournalMedico-Legal Journal
Issue number1
Early online date18 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • drowning
  • cold water
  • psychophysiology
  • pathophysiology


Dive into the research topics of 'The experience of drowning'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this