The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology

Obinna Umeh, Julien Larena, Chris Clarkson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H_0, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number029
JournalJournal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Issue number03
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2011


  • astro-ph.CO
  • gr-qc


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