The impact of innovation on economic growth, foreign direct investment, and self-employment: a global perspective

Juan Dempere, Muhammed Qamar, Hesham Allam, Sabir Shabbir Malik

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This paper aims to investigate the impact of innovation on three macroeconomic indicators: GDP, self-employment, and foreign direct investment (FDI). The study analyses a sample of 120 countries using the Global Innovation Index (GII) and its constituent sub-indices and pillars, which provide a holistic evaluation of national innovation. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita measures a country’s economic output, self-employment assesses entrepreneurial activity, and FDI indicates confidence in a country’s economic prospects and innovation trends. This study analyzes the data using generalized-linear and panel-corrected standard-error models. The results show that innovation positively influences GDP, domestic institutional framework, local infrastructure, local knowledge and technology, and creative outputs. In contrast, innovation negatively correlates with domestic self-employment, often associated with necessity-driven entrepreneurship. The study concludes that innovation positively affects human resources, research, and creative outputs and has no significant impact on FDI. The findings suggest that a practical regulatory framework, institutional support, domestic human capital, research and development, infrastructure, technology, and creative outputs are essential for a vibrant economy. National innovation policies supporting the GII and its constituent factors can positively affect the economy while reducing self-employment.
Original languageEnglish
Article number182
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jul 2023

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