In late 2014, four images of Supernova (SN) "Refsdal," the first known example of a strongly lensed SN with multiple resolved images, were detected in the MACS J1149 galaxy-cluster field. Following the images' discovery, the SN was predicted to reappear within hundreds of days at a new position ~8 arcseconds away in the field. The observed reappearance in late 2015 makes it possible to carry out Refsdal's (1964) original proposal to use a multiply imaged SN to measure the Hubble constant H0, since the time delay between appearances should vary inversely with H0. Moreover, the position, brightness, and timing of the reappearance enable a novel test of the blind predictions of galaxy-cluster models, which are typically constrained only by the positions of multiply imaged galaxies. We have developed a new photometry pipeline that uses DOLPHOT to measure the fluxes of the five images of SN Refsdal from difference images. We apply four separate techniques to perform a blind measurement of the relative time delays and magnification ratios (mu_i/mu_1) between the last image SX and the earlier images S1-S4. We measure the relative time delay of SX-S1 to be 376.0+5.6-5.5 days and the relative magnification to be 0.30+0.05-0.03. This corresponds to a 1.5% precision on the time delay and 17% precision for the magnification ratios, and includes uncertainties due to millilensing and microlensing. In an accompanying paper, we place initial and blind constraints on the value of the Hubble constant.
|Number of pages||33|
|Journal||The Astrophysical Journal|
|Publication status||Published - 11 May 2023|