The Stripe 82 Massive Galaxy Catalog (S82-MGC) is the largest-volume stellar mass-limited sample of galaxies beyond z~1 constructed to date. Spanning 139.4 deg2, the S82-MGC includes a mass-limited sample of 41,770 galaxies with log Mstar > 11.2 to z~0.7, sampling a volume of 0.3 Gpc3, roughly equivalent to the volume of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) z 11.2 sample, and geometric masking. We provide near-IR based stellar mass estimates and compare these to previous estimates. All catalog products are made publicly available. The S82-MGC not only addresses previous statistical limitations in high-mass galaxy evolution studies but begins tackling inherent data challenges in the coming era of wide-field imaging surveys.