Time dependent behaviour of trabecular bone at multiple load levels

Shuqiao Xie, Krishnagoud Manda, Robert J. Wallace, Francesc Levrero-Florencio, A. Hamish R. W. Simpson, Pankaj Pankaj*

*Corresponding author for this work

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The deformation of bone when subjected to loads is not instantaneous but varies with time. To investigate this time-dependent behaviour sixteen bovine trabecular bone specimens were subjected to compressive loading, creep, unloading and recovery at multiple load levels corresponding to apparent strains of 2000–25,000 με. We found that: the time-dependent response of trabecular bone comprises of both recoverable and irrecoverable strains; the strain response is nonlinearly related to applied load levels; and the response is linked to bone volume fraction. Although majority of strain is recovered after the load-creep-unload-recovery cycle some residual strain always exists. The analysis of results indicates that trabecular bone becomes stiffer initially and then experiences stiffness degradation with the increasing load levels. Steady state creep rate was found to be dependent on applied stress level and bone volume fraction with a power law relationship.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1219-1226
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
Issue number5
Early online date27 Jan 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • bone volume fraction
  • creep compliance
  • creep-recovery
  • steady state creep rate
  • viscoelastic
  • RCUK
  • EP/K036939/1


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