Trends and challenges of technology-enhanced learning in geotechnical engineering education

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The integration of technology and new tools in engineering education has created opportunities for the advancement of geotechnical engineering education (GEE). Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) has been implemented in GEE by many educators, and its impacts have been studied by different researchers. This review paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the state-of-the-art implementation of TEL in GEE based on published journal articles. This study adopts a systematic approach in examining the literature on TEL in GEE, identifies emerging trends and challenges, presents potential solutions, and outlines research gaps and recommendations. The literature indicates that, over the past couple of decades, the major trends of TEL in GEE have included computer-based simulations and computations, physical and centrifuge modeling, virtual laboratory and field experimentation, internet-based online resources, and virtual and augmented reality. The implementation of TEL in GEE can support students in effectively comprehending complex engineering concepts and augment their preparedness for the demands of professional practice. Furthermore, the integration of TEL with instructional design strategies involving problem-based learning, experiential learning, collaborative learning, and critical thinking cultivation is recognized as a favorable strategy. However, challenges such as a lack of resources and experience, optimization of pedagogies, alignment with course content, and quantification of TEL’s impact on GEE and student learning experiences remain to be addressed by continuing research and development in this field. In addition, an outcome-based education (OBE) theory-inspired quadruple framework is proposed in this study for the efficient implementation of TEL in GEE.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7972
Number of pages20
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2023


  • computer-based learning
  • geotechnical engineering education
  • internet-based learning
  • teaching pedagogy
  • technology-enhanced learning
  • virtual/augmented reality

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