Organotin compounds are toxic and have long-term persistence in the environment. Consequently very low environmental quality standards are set internationally for tributyltin, the major of substance of concern in water. The fulfilment of these regulatory demands has necessitated the development of highly sensitive and selective analytical techniques for the measurement of these compounds. These developments have been coupled with novel extraction and pre-concentration methods that have the potential to be used with automated on-line procedures. Quantification using isotopically enriched tin standards in mass spectrometric-based techniques have allowed for improvements in robustness and precision of analytical methods. In parallel to these laboratory techniques, there have also been enhancements in monitoring methods, particularly the use of passive samplers. This review gives an overview of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment and current trends for their analysis and monitoring within the context of meeting the statutory regulatory environmental standards for tributyltin.
- Organotin, Tributyltin, Water Framework Directive, Gas chromatography, Liquid chromatography, Derivatisation, Passive sampling