Two-dimensional fictitious truss method for estimation of out-of plane strength of masonry walls

Muhammad Ridwan, Isamu Yoshitake, Ayman Nassif

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The truss method is rarely used to analyze a masonry wall, especially a masonry wall under a load in the out-of-plane direction. The present study proposes a model called the fictitious truss method (FTM) to determine the ability of masonry structures to withstand a lateral load within their elastic deformation capacities, and introduces a two dimensional linear static model for masonry walls. The model represents the effect of flexural interaction by computing the stress and strain in the axial direction of the material and by considering uniaxial force effects on masonry elements. Pressure is applied to the surface area of the wall sequentially to predict the ultimate tension and compression cracking. FTM modeling is validated using previously obtained results for confined and unconfined masonry walls and for reinforced and unreinforced masonry walls. The FTM is a reliable method of assessing the out-of-plane strength of masonry structures owing to its conceptual accuracy, simplicity, and computational efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-38
Number of pages15
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Early online date30 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2017


  • fictitious truss method
  • masonry structure
  • out-of-plane strength


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