We report the discovery of two wasp species emerging from egg sacs of the spider Cyrtophora citricola (Forskål 1775) collected from mainland Spain and the Canary Islands. We identify one as Philolema palanichamyi (Narendran 1984) (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) and the other as a member of the Pediobius pyrgo (Walker 1839) species group (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). This is the first report of Philolema in Europe, and the first documentation of hymenopteran egg predators of C. citricola. The latter finding is particularly relevant, given the multiple invasive populations of C. citricola in the Americas and the Caribbean, where neither egg sac predation nor parasitism is known to occur. We describe rates of emergence by Ph. palanichamyi from spider egg sacs collected from the southern coast of Spain and estimate sex ratios and body size variation among males and females. We also re-describe Ph. palanichamyi based on the female holotype and male paratype specimens.
- colonial spider
- natural enemy