Increased emissions of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere has adversely been contributing to global warming as a result of burning fossil fuels. Therefore, the energy sectors have been looking into renewable sources such as wind, solar, and hydro energy to make electricity. However, the strongly fluctuating nature of electricity from such energy sources requires a bulk energy storage system to store the excess energy as a buffer and to fulfill the demand constantly. Underground storage is a proven way to store a huge amount of energy (electricity) after converting it into hydrogen as it has higher energy content per unit mass than other gases such as methane and natural gas. This paper reviews the technical aspects and feasibility of the underground storage of hydrogen into depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers, and manmade underground cavity (caverns). Mechanisms of underground hydrogen storage (UHS) followed by numerous phenomena such as hydrodynamics, geochemical, physiochemical, bio-chemical, or microbial reactions have been deliberated. Modeling studies have also been incorporated in the literature to assess the feasibility of the process that are also reviewed in this paper. Worldwide ongoing lab study, field study together with potential storage sites have been reported as well. Technical challenges along with proper remedial techniques and economic viability have been briefly discussed. Finally, this paper delivers some feasible strategies for the underground hydrogen storage process, which would be helpful for future research and development of UHS.
- cushion gas
- underground storage