Update on endometrial stromal tumours of the uterus

Iolia Akaev*, Chit Cheng Yeoh, Siavash Rahimi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Endometrial stromal tumours (ESTs) are rare, intriguing uterine mesenchymal neoplasms with variegated histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics. Morphologically, ESTs resemble endometrial stromal cells in the proliferative phase of the men-strual cycle. In 1966 Norris and Taylor classified ESTs into benign and malignant categories according to the mitotic count. In the most recent classification by the WHO (2020), ESTs have been divided into four categories: Endometrial Stromal Nodules (ESNs), Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas (LG-ESSs), High-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas (HG-ESSs) and Undifferentiated Uterine Sarcomas (UUSs). ESNs are clinically benign. LG-ESSs are tumours of low malignant potential, often with indolent clinical behaviour, with some cases presented with a late recurrence after hys-terectomy. HG-ESSs are tumours of high malignant potential with more aggressive clinical outcome. UUSs show high-grade morphological features with very aggressive clinical behavior. With the advent of molecular techniques, the morphological classification of ESTs can be integrated with molecular findings in enhanced classification of these tumours. In the future, the morphological and immunohistochemical features correlated with molecular categorisation of ESTs, will become a robust means to plan therapeutic decisions, especially in recurrences and metastatic disease. In this review, we summarise the morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of ESTs with particular reference to the most recent molecular findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number429
Number of pages19
JournalDiagnostics
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Endometrial stromal sarcoma
  • ESN
  • ESS
  • EST
  • HG-ESS
  • LG-ESS
  • NTRK-uterine tumours
  • Uterine sarcoma
  • UUS
  • YWHAE-NUTM2
  • ZC3H7B-BCOR

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