User perspectives to direct water reuse from the Nano Membrane toilet

Peter Cruddas, A. Parker, A. Gormley

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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The Nano Membrane toilet is a response to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ‘Re-invent the Toilet Challenge’. The Nano Membrane toilet has many design aspects that will involve interaction by the end-user, including water reuse from the membrane treatment system which produces treated water directly available to the user at household level. In order to maintain a user focused design development, a survey was carried out on potential end users in Kumasi, Ghana, in order to understand their attitudes to direct reuse of water from the toilet, and how the attitudes may be affected by aesthetic changes to the water. It was found that end users would be willing to use the product water for a wide range of household purposes, with cleaning being the most likely. Odour was found to have the greatest effect over taste and colour on user’s willingness for all potential purposes, including drinking, cooking, and teeth cleaning.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 38th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 27-31 July 2015
PublisherWEDC, Loughborough University
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2015
Event38th International WEDC Conference: Water, Sanitation and hygiene services beyond 2015 - Improving access and sustainability - Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
Duration: 27 Jul 201531 Jul 2015


Conference38th International WEDC Conference
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address


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