Vulnerability of women and girls in refugee settings: considerations for energy programming

Tamsin Bradley, Katherine Liakos

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


    The complexity and high prevalence of different forms of VAWG in humanitarian refugee contexts are often missed. The links between violence against women and girls (VAWG) and energy often focuses on highlighting risk factors rather than generating a detailed, nuanced understanding of how different forms of violence intersect with poverty and fragility in refugee settings. Risk factors include increased vulnerability to violence, for instance when collecting firewood or walking at night in poorly lit areas. This chapter presents a review of existing literature on the links between VAWG and energy, noting the current trends and limitations in research and programme design. Secondly, the authors present new qualitative evidence from twenty in-depth interviews with female refugees in the Kakuma camp and Kalobeyei settlement in Kenya. Findings, outlined in more detail throughout the chapter, suggest that improved energy, lighting and cooking fuel would significantly enhance feelings of security and may even support greater resilience to violence. This chapter evidences the need for greater consideration of VAWG in energy programming in refugee settings and outlines a recommended approach to mainstreaming a VAWG perspective in energy programming.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationEnergy Access and Forced Migration
    EditorsOwen Grafham
    Number of pages18
    ISBN (Electronic)9781351006934
    ISBN (Print)9781138543386
    Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2019

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