What are the important design features of personal health records to improve medication adherence for patients with long-term conditions? A systematic literature review

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Abstract

Objectives: This systematic literature review aims to identify important design features of the electronic personal health record (PHR) that may improve medication adherence in the adult population with long-term conditions.

Data sources: PubMed (including MEDLINE), CINAHL, Science Direct (including EMBASE), BioMed Central, ACM digital, Emerald Insight, Google Scholar and Research Gate.

Methods: Studies that were published between 1 January 2002 and 31 May 2018 in English were included if the participants were adults, with at least one longterm condition, were able to self-administer their medication and were treated in primary care settings. The quality of evidence was assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system and the risk of bias was appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.

Results: From a total of 27 studies that matched the inclusion criteria, 12 were excluded due to low quality of evidence, 10 were rated moderate and 5 were rated high quality. All the included studies had low sample size and limited follow-up duration. Thirteen of the included studies found that the use of a PHR has increased medication adherence. The identified design features are reminders, education, personalisation and tailoring, feedback and alerts, gamification, medication management, medical appointment management, diary and self-monitoring, health condition management, set goals, patient’s blog and tethered. It was impossible to draw conclusions as to which feature is important to what group of patients and why. The most frequently identified conditions were HIV and diabetes. This review did not identify any papers with negative results. It was not possible to numerically aggregate the PHR effect due to high heterogeneity of the medication adherence measurement, study type, participants and PHRs used.

Conclusion: Although we found recurrent evidence that PHRs can improve medication adherence, there is little evidence to date to indicate which design features facilitate this process.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere028628
Number of pages9
JournalBMJ Open
Volume9
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Sep 2019

Keywords

  • long-term conditions
  • medical informatics
  • medication adherence
  • personal health reord
  • PHR
  • systematic literature review

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