Would you like to add a gratuity? When explicit requests hamper tipping

Shynar Dyussembayeva*, Giampaolo Viglia, Marta Nieto-Garcia, Anna S Mattila

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Many service providers explicitly ask customers for a tip. This may create social pressure, thus resulting in lower tips. Building on the theory of psychological reactance, we propose that an explicit request to tip has a detrimental impact on tip size. Across two studies, a field experiment and an online experiment, we test this effect and examine how the physical presence of the server moderates this relationship. We find that an explicit request to tip negatively affects tip size, while server’s physical presence alleviates this effect. The findings also show that social pressure hampers perceived control, which in turn has a detrimental effect on tip size. In light of these findings, service providers might want to revisit their strategies to enhance tipping.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)908-917
JournalJournal of Business Research
Early online date26 Oct 2021
Publication statusEarly online - 26 Oct 2021


  • tipping
  • social pressure
  • perceived control
  • revenue maximization
  • service encounters


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