WSMO-Lite and hRESTS: lightweight semantic annotations for web services and RESTful APIs

Dumitru Roman, Jacek Kopecky, Tomas Vitvar, John Domingue, Dieter Fensel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Service-oriented computing has brought special attention to service description, especially in connection with semantic technologies. The expected proliferation of publicly accessible services can benefit greatly from tool support and automation, both of which are the focus of Semantic Web Service (SWS) frameworks that especially address service discovery, composition and execution. As the first SWS standard, in 2007 the World Wide Web Consortium produced a lightweight bottom-up specification called SAWSDL for adding semantic annotations to WSDL service descriptions. Building on SAWSDL, this article presents WSMO-Lite, a lightweight ontology of Web service semantics that distinguishes four semantic aspects of services: function, behavior, information model, and nonfunctional properties, which together form a basis for semantic automation. With the WSMO-Lite ontology, SAWSDL descriptions enable semantic automation beyond simple input/output matchmaking that is supported by SAWSDL itself. Further, to broaden the reach of WSMO-Lite and SAWSDL tools to the increasingly common RESTful services, the article adds hRESTS and MicroWSMO, two HTML microformats that mirror WSDL and SAWSDL in the documentation of RESTful services, enabling combining RESTful services with WSDL-based ones in a single semantic framework. To demonstrate the feasibility and versatility of this approach, the article presents common algorithms for Web service discovery and composition adapted to WSMO-Lite.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-58
JournalWeb Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web
Early online date3 Dec 2014
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2015


  • WSMO-Lite
  • Web services
  • RESTful services


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