Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder associated with inattentiveness, pathological hyperactivity and impulsivity. Despite the mounting human and animal evidence, the neurological pathways underlying ADHD remain poorly understood. Novel translational model organisms, such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio), are becoming important tools to investigate genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of various neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we discuss ADHD etiology, existing rodent models and their limitations, and emphasize the advantages of using zebrafish to model ADHD. Overall, the growing utility of zebrafish models may improve our understanding of ADHD and facilitate drug discovery to prevent or treat this disorder.