Adoption of Mobile Based Learning in Higher Education Institutions in Pakistan

  • Shaleel Iqbal Awan

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


Nowadays mobile devices (especially Smartphones and tablet PCs) have become part of daily life. These devices are changing the lifestyle of people – the way they live, work and interact with each other. The popularity and increased ownership of mobile devices is prompting the researchers to think on how these devices and technology can be used in a constructive and productive manner. One of the many possibilities is to use them for formal and informal learning
- an activity which falls in the domain of mobile learning. Mobile learning, or m-learning, can be considered an extension of electronic learning (e-learning) in which learning is delivered viamobile technology/devices.

The widespread diffusion of mobile devices among today’s youth is resulting in many changes in their attitude and behavior as well as their style of learning. Existing research indicates that a large number of them anticipate different modes of delivery of educational contents not only in terms of time and space, but also in terms of interactivity and spontaneity - which are the main features of m-learning. M-learning can be very effective at the tertiary level at a time when Generation Z is reaching universities and the number of distance learning students is increasing day by day. M-learning success in educational context depends on the perceptions and participation of its various stakeholders: students, faculty, university administration and technical support staff.

In Pakistani context, a large portion of the sixth largest populated country of the world consists of youth having access to mobile/Smartphones. Although mobile phones are mostly used for entertainment purposes and people criticize them as a source of wasting time, but they can be used as a tool for enhancing formal and informal learning. There is a shortage of research on m- learning in Pakistan specifically studies showing current status of m-learning and students’
perceptions towards this new mode of learning at the university level.

A scientific approach (hypothetico-deductive method) was used in this study to explore the critical factors responsible for m-learning adoption among the university students in Pakistan. Initially interviews were conducted with the stakeholders (students, faculty and technology experts) to get in depth understanding of the problem under investigation. Based on the results of
these interview and literature review, a survey instrument was developed. In order to gather the required data, mixed methods (MM) sampling was used. A pilot study was conducted before the final survey to check the reliability and validity of research instruments. The final survey resulted in 628 valid responses gathered from five major cities of Pakistan.

The data gathered was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software. Structural equation modeling was performed using AMOS. The results of hypotheses testing confirmed acceptance of 16 out of 17 proposed hypotheses while one hypothesis was rejected. The results highlighted the key determinants of m-learning adoption among university students
in Pakistan. The findings of this study have both theoretical and practical implications for the researchers and the policy makers which are discussed at the end of this dissertation.
Date of Award5 Jan 2016
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Iqra University
SupervisorZeeshan Ahmed Bhatti (Supervisor)

Cite this