A quality management (QM) model is broadly accepted as a tool of managerial approaches in order to measure and improve the performance of the organisation. However, the existing QM models, such as the Thailand Quality Award (TQA), may not be appropriate to employ in Thai Small, Medium and Large Enterprises (SMLEs). Due to the TQA‟s vigorous requirements, there are only a few Thai companies that have achieved the TQA. Moreover, recent research studies on the QM model have focused on other Thai industries and not directly Thai SMLEs, whereas Thai SMLEs generate a lot of income for the country and require an effective QM model in order to improve their organisational performance continuously.
The aim of this current research is to develop and evaluate a QM model for assessing organisational performance in Thai SMLEs. The research methodology used in this research involves two main studies. Firstly, the theoretical study aims to develop a conceptual QM model and a conceptual Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) model. Secondly, the empirical study aims to validate a conceptual QM model to be an implemented QM model and to assess a conceptual CFA model to be an implemented CFA model in order to determine the weights of quality elements. An implemented QM model integrated with the weights of quality elements becomes a finalised QM model according to the aim of the research.
The important findings of this research are the finalised QM model named as the Thai Small Medium and Large Enterprises Quality (TSMLEQ) model. The TSMLEQ model is composed of 14 elements and their weights: Leadership (53), Strategic Planning & Policy (75), Human Resource Management (71), Partnerships & Resources (69), Knowledge Management (71), Innovation Management (76), Technology Management (66), Process Management (81), Customer Satisfaction (78), Employee Satisfaction (70), Society Results (67), Business Performance Results (76), Continuous Improvement (78), and Measurement & Analysis (69). The main originality of this research compared to the previous study is the determination of the most and least important quality elements, which are Process Management and Leadership, respectively.
In order to improve the performance of the organisation, the companies can use the TSMLEQ model as a self-assessment tool to evaluate the level of the quality management implementation. The self-assessment can engage the TQM programme within the companies because it supports as a baseline and path of continuous improvement. The criteria of self-assessment (or quality elements) of the TSMLEQ model are based on the concepts of TQM that are similar to the world-class performance criteria such as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) and the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM).
The contributions of this research comprise three aspects. Firstly, Thai industry can be benefitted by adopting the results of this research in order to implement quality management effectively. Secondly, academics in quality management can deploy research methodology used in this research in order to develop a QM model for their research objectives. Thirdly, the findings of this research can be the source of the study of quality management in Thailand and other countries.