AbstractThe studies presented in this thesis were conducted to develop two minimum fitness standards, one for the Maritime and Coastguard Agency and the second for the Oil and Gas Industry. This provided the opportunity to compare across the essential tasks and resultant standards.
The following stages were used for both the Maritime and Coastguard Agency and Oil and Gas Industry: a. Review the tasks requiring a significant physical fitness component (Task Analysis); b. Determine the importance of the physically demanding tasks and identify those which are critical for success and safe work (Task Assessment); c. Establish the method of best practice (Technique) for undertaking the essential tasks; d. Establish and agree the minimum performance standard for the essential tasks (Task Performance) when performed using the method of best practice; e. Assess the physical and physiological demands of these tasks (Task Quantification); f. Design and validate a simple-to-administer
minimum fitness standard.
The essential tasks and fitness requirements of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency fell into three groups, these were: Group 1 (All Operations): achieve a maximum aerobic score of at least 31 mL.kg-1.min-1 based on the aerobic demand of 21.8 mL.kg-1.min-1 required to carry a stretcher at the head-end 200 m at a speed of 3.2 km.h-1; continuously lift a 3 kg sledge hammer 10 times above shoulder height, based on hammering a stake into the ground; pull a rope, with a resistance of 35 kg, and maintain this load for 15 s based on manning a main rescue-line; carry a 19 kg hand-held load 200 m in 3 min 45 s allow 3 min 45 s rest, then carry a 25.5 kg hand held load, 200 m in 3 min 45 s, based on the ability to carry a stretcher (89 kg) as part of a four person team. Group 2 (Rope Technicians) should complete all the tasks as Group 1, plus pass all the technical competencies currently in place for Rope Technicians. Group 3 (Mud Technicians) as Group 1, plus achieve a predicted maximum aerobic score of at least 39 mL.kg-1.min-1 based on the aerobic demand of 27.4 mL.kg-1.min-1 required to pull a stretcher across the mud at 0.8 km.h-1, (this equates to covering 200 m in 15 minutes), prior to performing a simulated mud rescue.
The essential tasks and the minimum fitness requirements of the Oil and Gas Industry were: Stair and Ladder-Climbing, achieve a predicted maximum aerobic score of at least 31 mL.kg-1.min-1 based on the aerobic demand of 23.4 mL.kg-1.min-1 required to climb a flight of stairs at a rate of 80 steps.min-1 and 23.6 mL.kg-1.m-1 to climb a ladder at 24 rungs.min-1; Manual Handling, based on the requirement to climb a flight of stairs at a rate of 80 steps.min-1 for a minute carrying a load of 10 kg, 20 kg or 25 kg; Valve Turning, based on the requirement to continuously turn a medium size valve (25.4 cm diameter) set at a torque of 8.3 N.m, for 5 min; Emergency Response Team, achieve a predicted maximum aerobic score of at least 41 mL.kg-1.min-1, based on the aerobic demand of 30.7 mL.kg-1.min-1 required to pull a trailer/foam monitor at a speed of 5 km.h-1. If trailer/foam monitors are not used achieve a predicted maximum aerobic score of at least 39 mL.kg-1.min-1 based on the aerobic demand of 28.9 mL.kg-1.min-1 required to climb a ladder at 34.5 rungs.min-1. Stretcher carry 89 kg either in a two or four person lift (dependant on the facility), rope haul the heaviest anticipated load (10 kg first aid kit) up 10 m gantry, roll out a 23 m fire hose. There were no time constraints recommended for hauling kit and rolling out a hose.
For those essential tasks that could not be assessed by a direct task measurement or a direct task simulation, a Predictive selection test was recommended and validated. Prediction intervals were used to take into account the inherent error between the predictive tests and the direct measurements, to determine “Pass”, “Borderline” and “Fail” categories.
As a result of this work a modular approach was adopted in which individuals only undertake those test applicable to their job, with a combination of direct task measurements, direct task simulations, and Predictive selection tests recommended. It is suggested that, where possible, the use of a direct task measurement or simulation should either be progressive e.g. stretcher-carrying, or performed after a Predictive selection test, in order to reduce the risk of injury when the individuals proceed to undertake the direct task measurement or simulation e.g. manual handling. This approach has meant that consideration is given to the health and safety of the individuals undertaking the fitness standard whilst maintaining a high level of face validity.
|Date of Award||18 Apr 2013|
|Sponsors||Energy Institute & Maritime & Coastguard Agency|
|Supervisor||Mike Tipton (Supervisor), James R. House (Supervisor) & Jo Corbett (Supervisor)|