Protection of the marine environment from oil pollution by ahips in the Arabian Gulf and the role of Saudi Arabia
: a study in international law with Special reference to Islamic law

  • Fahad M. Z. Al-Refaei

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


Marine pollution is currently a major and pressing issue, as the world strives to reduce the associated risks and to develop effective and appropriate solutions. Moreover, oil pollution is a major and hazardous source of pollution in the waters of the Arabian Gulf. It is an indisputable fact that the marine environment of the region has suffered greatly since the export of oil began, as a result of the multiple harmful activities associated with that trade, such as the loading of oil, the emptying of contaminated ballast tanks, the various exploration, prospecting and manufacturing processes, in addition to oil pollution incidents resulting from collisions between ships or from fires and explosions that affect ships and marine oil installations. Further environmental damage has been caused by deliberate attacks related to armed conflict in the region during the past few years.
Date of Award2009
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Portsmouth
SupervisorMunir Maniruzzaman (Supervisor)

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