Reducing Social Exclusion: Pathways and Monetary Values for Urban Policy and Planning

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


Reducing social exclusion is a policy priority for many cities but monetary measurement of benefits from reducing exclusion is not well developed. This challenges priority determination in jurisdictions that use cost-benefit analysis to help inform policy/planning decisions. Developing monetary measures of societal benefits from reducing exclusion is the purpose of this research. The Approach and methods section of this paper outlines how this was accomplished. Theme 1 (Policy context) provides public policy background, identifying market failures relating to external costs, distributional inequities, and the limited extent of markets as challenges confronting derivation of monetary values. The economic concept of merit goods links these challenges. Theme 2 (Transport equity) explores equity relating to public transport service provision, exploring different ethical perspectives for assessing social justice and exclusion. The capabilities approach and service thresholds are identified as a valuable framework for thinking about transport/mobility opportunity equity. Mass transit is distinguished from social transit and some research findings on the value of trips for reducing social exclusion are introduced and used to inform development of social transit service standards. Theme 3 (Pathway significance and monetary values) identifies, and derives monetary values for, several land use transport policy-relevant influences on risk of exclusion: trips, wellbeing, social capital, sense of community and neighbourhood disadvantage. The trip value is used in a cost-benefit analysis of major transport initiatives. Research significance and contribution to knowledge is then discussed, concluding with an overview of research dissemination, impact, limitations and future directions. It is argued that the research monetary values will support efforts to reduce social exclusion, through more balanced identification and evaluation of policy/planning measures with this intent, within a triple-bottom line sustainability framework. Potential application to the popular urban planning intent of building strong/complete communities is highlighted. Recent Singapore government work replicating this research approach is encouraging.
Date of Award30 May 2024
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Portsmouth
SupervisorAntonino Di Raimo (Supervisor)

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