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A theoretical framework for designing smart and ubiquitous learning environments for outdoor cultural heritage

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Cultural heritage is constantly attracting researchers and developers to introduce services that could support informal learning and enhance visitors’ experience at sites, through the use of technology. Few studies introduced models and frameworks for developing learning technologies, however, none of them were developed for supporting informal learning on-the-move at outdoor cultural heritage. This paper introduces a theoretical Framework for designing Smart and ubiquitous Learning Environments (FoSLE) for outdoor cultural heritage sites, which was formulated based on the results of three field studies that were conducted for gathering user requirements. A user-centred design approach using sequential mixed methods was adopted with data being gathered
using focus group, questionnaire and interview techniques. A set of general requirements was extracted from the framework to inform the design of a smart and ubiquitous learning environment proof-of-concept, SmartC, for which mobile and wearable technologies were utilised.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Cultural Heritage
Publication statusAccepted for publication - 20 Aug 2020


  • CH-2020-acceptedVersion

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    Accepted author manuscript (Post-print), 655 KB, PDF document

    Due to publisher’s copyright restrictions, this document is not freely available to download from this website until: 1/01/50

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