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Gravity in a lattice Boltzmann model

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In this paper we consider the introduction of a body force, in the incompressible limit, into the lattice Boltzmann model. A number of methods are considered and their suitability to our objectives determined. When there is no density variation across the fluid, gravity can be introduced in the form of an altered pressure gradient. This method correctly satisfies the Navier-Stokes equation; however, if there is a non-negligible density variation present ~produced by the body force or otherwise! this method becomes less accurate as the density variation increases and the constant density approximation becomes less valid. Three other methods are also considered for application when there is a non-negligible density variation. The equations of motion satisfied by these models are found up to second order in the Knudsen number and it is seen that only one of these methods satisfies the true Navier-Stokes equation. Numerical simulations are performed to compare the different models and to assess the range of application of each.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5307-5320
JournalPhysical Review E
Volume61
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2000

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    Rights statement: Copyright 2000 by The American Physical Society

    Final published version, 182 KB, PDF document

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