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Healthcare workers’ perspectives on participatory system dynamics modelling and simulation: designing safe and efficient hospital pharmacy dispensing systems together

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

With increasingly complex safety-critical systems like healthcare being developed and managed, there is a need for a tool that permits decision-makers to better understand the complexity, test various strategies and guide effective changes. System Dynamics (SD) modelling is an effective approach that can aid strategic decision-making in healthcare systems but has been underutilised partly due to the challenge of engaging healthcare stakeholders in the modelling process. This paper, therefore, investigates the applicability of a participatory SD approach based on healthcare workers' perspectives on ease of use (usability) and usefulness (utility). The study developed an interactive simulation dashboard platform which facilitated participatory simulation for exploring various hospital pharmacy staffing level arrangements and their impacts on interruptions, fatigue, workload, rework, productivity and safety. The findings reveal that participatory SD approach can enhance team learning by converging on a shared mental model, aid decision-making and identifying trade-offs. The implications of these findings are discussed as well as experience and lessons learned on modelling facilitation.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages33
Early online date16 Jun 2020
Publication statusEarly online - 16 Jun 2020


  • Shire_et_al_AAM

    Rights statement: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Ergonomics on 16.06.2020, available online:

    Accepted author manuscript (Post-print), 370 KB, PDF document

    Due to publisher’s copyright restrictions, this document is not freely available to download from this website until: 16/06/21

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