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New challenges in public order policing: the professionalisation of environmental protest and the emergence of the militant environmental activist

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Over the last decade there have been significant changes in the nature of protest which have posed new challenges to policing organisations. This article using the case of environmental protest charts the changing nature of protest and using a new typology identifies a new form of protester that has been termed the Militant Environmental Activist. The characteristics and innovative tactics used by these activists are examined and it is argued that they amount to a ‘professionalisation’ of protest. The article then moves on to highlight the ‘fragmented’ policing structure that has evolved to tackle these activists encompassing both public, ‘hybrid’ and private policing agencies. Finally, the article briefly examines some of the strategies these policing agencies are developing to combat these new challenges.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-32
JournalThe International Journal of the Sociology of Law
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2002

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