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Prevalence and risk factors of acute lower respiratory infection among children living in biomass fuel using households: a community-based cross-sectional study in Northwest Ethiopia

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  • Mesafint Molla Adane
  • Getu Degu Alene
  • Seid Tiku Mereta
  • Kristina L. Wanyonyi
Background - Childhood acute lower respiratory infection in the form of pneumonia is recognized as the single largest cause of childhood death globally accounting for 16% of the overall deaths. Some studies also reported a higher prevalence of childhood acute respiratory infection in Ethiopia, which ranges from 16% up to 33.5%. Concerning the risk factors, there are limited community-based studies in Ethiopia in general, and in the current study region in particular. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of childhood acute respiratory infection and associated factors in Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods - As part of the wider stove trial project, a cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2018 among a total of 5830 children aged less than 4 years old in randomly selected clusters. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify factors linked with childhood acute lower respiratory infection and adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of effect with a 95% confidence interval.

Results - A total of 5830 children were included in the study within 100 clusters. Out of which 51.7% were male and 48.3% female. The prevalence of childhood lower acute respiratory infection was 19.2% (95% CI: 18.2–20.2) and found to decrease among children living in homes with chimney, eaves space and improved cookstove than children living in households with no chimney, eaves space and improved cookstove with estimated AOR of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.51–0.70), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.60–0.84) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.28–0.67) respectively. It was also associated with other cooking-related factors such as cow dung fuel use [AOR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.02–2.33)], child spending time near stove during cooking [AOR = 1.41 (95% CI: 1.06–1.88), presence of extra indoor burning events [AOR = 2.19 (95% CI: 1.41–3.40)] and with frequent cooking of meals [AOR = 1.55 (95% CI: 1.13–2.13)].

Conclusion - High prevalence of childhood acute lower respiratory infection was demonstrated by this study and it was found to be associated with household ventilation, cooking technology, and behavioral factors. Therefore, we recommend a transition in household ventilation, cooking technologies as well as in child handling and in the peculiar local extra indoor burning practices.
Original languageEnglish
Article number363
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2020


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