Skip to content

Shoppers' neural responses to the mere social presence of others: insights from an enclosed mall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  • Mark Rosenbaum
  • German Contreras Ramirez
  • Dahlia El-Manstrly
  • Dr Jason Sit
This research evaluates enclosed mall shoppers’ neural activation in response to the social presence of other people. The study draws on social impact theory to show how the mere presence of other people in an enclosed shopping mall influences six different emotions, including excitement, interest, stress, engagement, focus, and relaxation, within a focal shopper. We evaluate shoppers’ emotions by employing the Emotiv EPOC+ headset to obtain electroencephalogram recordings. The data obtained from mall shoppers reveal that the mere presence of other shoppers in an enclosed mall evokes high levels of stress, decreases excitement, and impedes a shopper’s ability to focus on a task. These findings imply that shoppers may avoid malls because of their cognitive responses to the social presence of other people, which promotes negative attitudes toward enclosed malls.
Original languageEnglish
JournalThe International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
Publication statusAccepted for publication - 9 Feb 2021


  • Shoppers' neural responses

    Rights statement: The embargo end date of 2050 is a temporary measure until we know the publication date. Once we know the publication date the full text of this article will be able to view shortly afterwards.

    Accepted author manuscript (Post-print), 936 KB, PDF document

    Due to publisher’s copyright restrictions, this document is not freely available to download from this website until: 1/01/50

Related information

Relations Get citation (various referencing formats)

ID: 26667846