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Spadin selectively antagonizes arachidonic acid activation of TREK-1 channels

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TREK-1 channel activity is a critical regulator of neuronal, cardiac, and smooth muscle physiology and pathology. The antidepressant peptide, spadin, has been proposed to be a TREK-1-specific blocker. Here we sought to examine the mechanism of action underlying spadin inhibition of TREK-1 channels. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and electrophysiological analysis using two-electrode voltage clamp in standard bath solutions was used to characterize the pharmacological profile of wild-type and mutant murine TREK-1 and TREK-2 channels using previously established human K2P activators; arachidonic acid (AA), cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), BL-1249, and cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-α-cyanocinnamate (CDC) and inhibitors; spadin and barium (Ba2+). Mouse TREK-1 and TREK-2 channel currents were both significantly increased by AA, BL-1249, and CDC, similar to their human homologs. Under basal conditions, both TREK-1 and TREK-2 currents were insensitive to application of spadin, but could be blocked by Ba2+. Spadin did not significantly inhibit either TREK-1 or TREK-2 currents either chemically activated by AA, BL-1249, or CDC, or structurally activated via a gating mutation. However, pre-exposure to spadin significantly perturbed the subsequent activation of TREK-1 currents by AA, but not TREK-2. Furthermore, spadin was unable to prevent activation of TREK-1 by BL-1249, CDC, or the related bioactive lipid, DHA. Spadin specifically antagonizes the activation of TREK-1 channels by AA, likely via an allosteric mechanism. Lack of intrinsic activity may explain the absence of clinical side effects during antidepressant therapy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number434
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Apr 2020

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