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The impact of referee training: reflections on the reduction of home advantage in Association Football

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The effect of increased development and professionalisation in elite Association Football referee training and the relationship with reduced home advantage in the English professional leagues were examined. The central aim was to chart the evolution of referee training, and how these developments in referee training have assisted in reducing home advantage. Interviews were conducted with elite and ex-elite referees, as well as those involved in the management, training and administration of elite referees in order to identify more recent adaptations to elite referee training and further explain the relationship between training and the reduction in home advantage. Findings indicate training and support is pronounced within elite refereeing has developed appreciably over time, and has contributed significantly to an increase in performance, decision making correctness and subsequent decline in home advantage.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages15
JournalSoccer & Society
Early online date26 Dec 2016
Publication statusEarly online - 26 Dec 2016


  • Impact of Home Advantage (Soccer and Society)

    Rights statement: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Soccer & Society on 26.12.2016, available online:

    Accepted author manuscript (Post-print), 215 KB, PDF document

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