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The kinematics of breasts implanted with a reduced mass implant: a pilot study

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Background - Breast implants may increase breast skin tension and interact with surrounding tissues to alter breast position and motion during dynamic activity. Reducing implant mass and changing implant location (submuscular/subglandular), may also affect breast kinematics and the subsequent load on breast structures.

Objectives - This pilot study aims to describe the kinematics of breasts augmented with reduced mass implants during standing, walking and running, compared to natural breasts, and to provide insight into how implant location (submuscular/subglandular) alters breast kinematics.

Methods - 12-15 months post-surgery, two breast augmentation participants (32AA pre-surgery, anatomical submuscular 255 cc B-Lite® reduced mass implant, and 32A pre-surgery, anatomical subglandular 285 cc B-Lite® reduced mass implant) and two natural breasted participants of similar breast size and anthropometrics were recruited (Natural 1 and 2). Nipple and torso positional data were recorded using electromagnetic sensors during standing, walking and running. Nipple kinematics relative to the torso were calculated.

Results - The B-Lite® participants both displayed greater nipple projection and elevation during standing and a 50% reduction in nipple acceleration during walking, when compared to their natural counterparts. During running, the B-Lite® subglandular participant displayed decreased nipple kinematics, compared to their natural counterpart and lower nipple kinematics compared to the B-Lite® submuscular participant during walking and running.

Conclusion - A combination of implant location (subglandular) and reduced mass minimised nipple kinematics during running. Reducing nipple kinematics during dynamic activity may decrease the loading on breast structures, helping to decrease ptosis and increase longevity of procedure outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAesthetic Surgery Journal
Early online date30 Aug 2019
Publication statusEarly online - 30 Aug 2019


  • The kinematics of breasts implanted with a reduced mass implant

    Rights statement: This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in Aesthetic Surgery Journal following peer review. The version of record Michelle Norris, Melissa Jones, Chris Mills, Tim Blackmore, Chris Inglefield and Joanna Wakefield-Scurr (2019). 'The Kinematics of Breasts Implanted With a Reduced Mass Implant: A Pilot Study'. Aesthetic Surgery Journal. is available online at:

    Accepted author manuscript (Post-print), 1.04 MB, PDF document

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