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The ‘three-pillars model of regulation’: a fusion of governance models for private security

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The growth in size, role and authority of private security has triggered a variety of regulatory reactions. These have stimulated a growing academic debate on preferred regulatory models. This paper summarizes the key existing models of regulation. It then provides a critique of the observations of Loader and White (Regul Gov 11(2):166–184, 2017) on the existing models. It critically examines their proposed model and outlines how we believe that private security regulation can be enhanced by setting out ‘three-pillars’ of effective regulation. The literature and research points towards the need for a regulatory pillar that enhances the wider private security sector, a distributive pillar that addresses security inequality and lastly a responsibility pillar designed to align the private security industry with the public interest.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages14
JournalSecurity Journal
Early online date2 Dec 2019
Publication statusEarly online - 2 Dec 2019


  • The 'civilizing model of regulation'- a critical response for pure

    Rights statement: This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in the Security Journal. The final authenticated version is available online at:

    Accepted author manuscript (Post-print), 404 KB, PDF document

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