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Tracker and scaling solutions in DHOST theories

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In quartic-order degenerate higher-order scalar-tensor (DHOST) theories compatible with gravitational-wave constraints, we derive the most general Lagrangian allowing for tracker solutions characterized by φ˙/Hp=constant, where φ˙ is the time derivative of a scalar field φ, H is the Hubble expansion rate, and p is a constant. While the tracker is present up to the cubic-order Horndeski Lagrangian L=c2X−c3X(p−1)/(2p)□φ, where c2,c3 are constants and X is the kinetic energy of φ, the DHOST interaction breaks this structure for p≠1. Even in the latter case, however, there exists an approximate tracker solution in the early cosmological epoch with the nearly constant field equation of state wφ=−1−2pH˙/(3H2). The scaling solution, which corresponds to p=1, is the unique case in which all the terms in the field density ρφ and the pressure Pφ obey the scaling relation ρφ∝Pφ∝H2. Extending the analysis to the coupled DHOST theories with the field-dependent coupling Q(φ) between the scalar field and matter, we show that the scaling solution exists for Q(φ)=1/(μ1φ+μ2), where μ1 and μ2 are constants. For the constant Q, i.e., μ1=0, we derive fixed points of the dynamical system by using the general Lagrangian with scaling solutions. This result can be applied to the model construction of late-time cosmic acceleration preceded by the scaling φ-matter-dominated epoch.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Letters B
Publication statusAccepted for publication - 8 Jan 2019
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