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Using the Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale to identify caregiver – infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns in six European countries

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  • Kornilia Hatzinikolaou
  • Vassiliki Karveli
  • Aggeliki Skoubourdi
  • Foteini Zarokosta
  • Gianluca Antonucci
  • Giovanni Visci
  • Maria Manuela Calheiros
  • Eunice Magalhães
  • Cecilia Essau
  • Sharon Allan
  • Jayshree Pithia
  • Fahreen Walji
  • Lourdes Ezpeleta
  • Ruth Perez-Robles
  • Kostas A. Fanti
  • Evita Katsimicha
  • Maria-Zoe Hadjicharambous
  • George Nikolaidis
  • Vasudevi Reddy
The study examined whether DC: 0-3R’s Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver–infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children’s ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and had already been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver-child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the ICAST-P, a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both PIR-GAS and ICAST-P. The inter-rater reliability for PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0-3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-355
JournalInfant Mental Health Journal
Issue number4
Early online date28 Jun 2016
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jul 2016


  • Using the parent-infant relationship

    Rights statement: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Hatzinikolaou, K., Karveli, V., Skoubourdi, A., Zarokosta, F., Antonucci, G., Visci, G., Calheiros, M. M., MagalhÃes, E., Essau, C., Allan, S., Pithia, J., Walji, F., Ezpeleta, L., Perez-Robles, R., Fanti, K. A., Katsimicha, E., Hadjicharambous, M.-Z., Nikolaidis, G. and Reddy, V. (2016), USING THE PARENT–INFANT RELATIONSHIP GLOBAL ASSESSMENT SCALE TO IDENTIFY CAREGIVER–INFANT/TODDLER DYADS WITH ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. Infant Ment. Health J., 37: 335–355. doi:10.1002/imhj.21577, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving

    Accepted author manuscript (Post-print), 976 KB, PDF document

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